Knowledge Room

Zend Framework Technology

Zend Framework was conceived in early 2005 while many new frameworks, such as Ruby on Rails and the Spring Framework, were gaining popularity in the web development community. ZF was publicly announced at the first Zend Conference in October 2005.

What is Zend?

Zend engine is like a virtual machine and is an open source, and is known for its role in automating the web using PHP. Zend is named after its developers Zeev and Aandi. Its reliability, performance and extensibility have a significant role in increasing the PHP’s popularity. The Zend Engine II is the heart of PHP 5. It is an open source project and freely available under BSD style license.

Zend Engine is used internally by PHP as a compiler and runtime engine. PHP Scripts are loaded into memory and compiled into Zend opcodes

What is a Framework?

A framework is a reusable design for a specific category of applications, expressed as a set of cooperating classes.

What is Zend Framework?

Zend Framework is a simple, straightforward, open-source software framework for PHP 5 designed to eliminate the tedious details of coding and let you focus on the big picture. Its strength is in its highly-modular MVC design, making your code more reusable and easier to maintain.

What does it take to write a framework?

  1. Be an expert in the domain (learning fast might not be enough, because there are many subtleties that one only understands with years of experience in the same domain).
  2. Understand the user community and their priorities well, and at the same time be persuasive enough not to let the short term user schedules ruin the framework.
  3. Communicate with the user community extremely well.
    Be an expert in OO modeling.
  4. Be an expert in design and architectural patterns.
  5. Have the backing from upper management to support the expensive initial iterations, because when you develop frameworks, by definition, you have to pay some of the cost up front so that you can save money in the long term.
  6. Be willing to experiment and even fail in your first attempts. This really means be willing to “throw some out”.
  7. Have a solid infrastructure. Have all the architectural mechanisms/services in place before you attempt to write a framework (logging, distribution, persistence, event service, naming service, etc.)

Tech, Tips and Tricks


RHCE was recently named the hottest certification in all IT by It is the “CROWN JEWEL of Linux certifications.”

Oracle on Sun Solaris

The Sun Oracle Database machine features 1 to 8 database servers, from 1 to 14 Sun Oracle Exadata storage servers and each Exadata storage server includes 384 GB of Exadata smart flash cache. It has the ability to perform up to a 1,000,000 input/output operation per second.

Data guard

Active data guard enhancement in Oracle Database 11g release 2 includes standby query service level.

Oracle RAC

Oracle RAC one node was introduced as a new oracle Database option.
It was designed to deliver most of the redundancy and availability in RAC to single node instances deployed on a grid infrastructure.

Oracle Database 11g

Provides an easy database cloning using Enterprise Manager
Online Database Patching

What is PHP?

PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (the name is a recursive acronym) is a widely used, Open Source general-purpose scripting language that was originally designed for web development to produce dynamic web pages.
For this purpose, PHP code is embedded into the HTML source document and Interpreted by a web server With a PHP processor module, which generates the web page document.

PHP is free software released under the PHP License, which is incompatible with the GNU General Public License (GPL).

What can PHP do?

Anything! PHP is mainly focused on server-side scripting, so you can do anything any other CGI program can do, such as collect form data, generate dynamic page content, or send and receive cookies.

PHP can be used on all major operating systems, including Linux, many UNIX variants (including HP-UX, Solaris and OpenBSD), Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, RISC OS, and probably others. PHP has also support for most of the web servers today. This includes Apache, Microsoft Internet Information Server, Personal Web Server, Netscape and iPlanet servers, Oreilly Website Pro server, Caudium, Xitami, OmniHTTPd, and many others. For the majority of the servers PHP has a module, for the others supporting the CGI standard, PHP can work as a CGI processor.

PHP now focuses mainly on server-side scripting, and it is similar to other server-side scripting languages that provide dynamic content from a web server to a client, such as Microsoft’s Active Server Pages, Sun Microsystems’ JavaServer Pages, and mod_perl.

PHP has also attracted the development of many frameworks that provide building blocks and a design structure to promote rapid application development (RAD). Some of these include CakePHP, Symfony, CodeIgniter, and Zend Framework, offering features similar to other web application frameworks.

What is the history of PHP?

PHP originally stood for personal home page.It began in 1994 as a set of Common Gateway Interface (CGI) binaries written in the C programming language by the Danish/Greenlandic programmer Rasmus Lerdorf.
PHP was originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1995. Lerdorf initially created these Personal Home Page Tools to replace a small set of Perl scripts he had been using to maintain his personal homepage.

The tools were used to perform tasks such as displaying his resume and recording how much traffic his page was receiving.

Zeev Suraski and Andi Gutmans, two Israeli developers at the Technion IIT, rewrote the parser in 1997 and formed the base of PHP 3, changing the language’s name to the recursive initialism PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor. Suraski and Gutmans then started a new rewrite of PHP’s core, producing the Zend Engine in 1999.On May 22, 2000, PHP 4, powered by the Zend Engine 1.0, was released.

On July 13, 2004, PHP 5 was released, powered by the new Zend Engine II.PHP 5 included new features such as improved support for object-oriented programming, the PHP Data Objects extension, and numerous performance enhancements.

PHP currently does not have native support for Unicode or multibyte strings. Unicode support will be included in PHP 6 and will allow strings as well as class, method and function names to contain non-ASCII characters.
PHP 6 is under development alongside PHP 5. Major changes include the removal of register_globals, magic quotes, and safe mode.The reason for the removals was that register_globals had given way to security holes, and magic quotes had an unpredictable nature, and was best avoided.


The National Vulnerability Database stores all vulnerabilities found in computer software. Most of these PHP-related vulnerabilities can be exploited remotely: they allow crackers to steal or destroy data from data sources linked to the webserver (such as an SQL database), send spam or contribute to Dos attacks using malware, which itself can be installed on the vulnerable servers.

Data types

PHP stores whole numbers in a platform-dependent range. This range is typically that of 32-bit signed integers. Unsigned integers are converted to signed values in certain situations.

PHP has a native Boolean type that is similar to the native Boolean types in Java and C++.Using the Boolean type conversion rules, non-zero values are interpreted as true and Zero as false, as in Perl and C++.
The null data type represents a variable that has no value. The only value in the null data type is NULL.

Arrays can contain elements of any type that PHP can handle, including resources, objects, and even other arrays.

PHP also supports strings, which can be used with single quotes, double quotes, or heredoc syntax.


Basic object-oriented programming functionality was added in PHP 3 and improved in PHP 4. Object handling was completely rewritten for PHP 5, expanding the feature set and enhancing performance.In the new approach, objects are referenced by handle, and not by value.

PHP 5 introduced private and protected member variables and methods, along with abstract classes and final classes as well as abstract methods and final methods. It also introduceda standard way of declaring constructors and destructors, similar to that of other object-oriented languages such as C++, and a standard exception handling model.Furthermore, PHP 5 added interfaces and allowed for multiple interfaces to be implemented.

Speed optimization

In order to speed up execution time and not have to compile the PHP source code every time the webpage is accessed, PHP scripts can also be stored in binary format using PHP compilers such as phc and roadsend.
Code optimizers aim to reduce the runtime of the compiled code by reducing its size and making other changes that can reduce the execution time with the goal of improving performance. The nature of the PHP compiler is such that there are often opportunities for code optimization, and an example of a code optimizer is the eAccelerator PHP extension.


PHP includes free and open source libraries with the core build. PHP is a fundamentally Internet-aware system with modules built in for accessing FTP servers, many database servers,embedded SQL libraries such as embedded PostgreSQL, MySQL and SQLite, LDAP servers, and others. Zend provides a certification exam for programmers to become certified PHP developers.

Is PHP used in STL?

Yes. PHP is used for all the websites belonging to STL and related companies. PHP has also been used to develop Aid Coordination and Monitoring system (ACOM) for the Ministry of Finance Uganda. PHP is also being used to develop HR5 and BOSA.

Did you know iSetup can Migrate data from one instance to another?


Instead of cloning the entire EBS instance, iSetup can be used to move required setup data from a production instance to a testing instance. New setups can be added to the test instance and those specific setups can be selectively migrated to production instance while the instance is up and running. This minimizes the need to redo setups, and execute expensive clone activities.

The main focus of iSetup is to help migrate functional setups from one E-Business Suite instance to another.

During migration, setups can be extracted selectively using filters on setup attributes. Extracted setup data can be optionally transformed before loading into target instance.

iSetup Tips

  • iSetup can help jump-start such implementation scenarios by loading a CRP instance from an industry best practice configuration.
  • iSetup provides an enterprise wide repository to store business specific configuration snapshots.
  • iSetup expedites implementations by providing out-of-the-box migration templates tailored to suit various implementation phases.
  • iSetup can also help promote setups from CRP to multiple test, development and production environments.
  • iSetup can be used to copy all setups striped by an Operating Unit and move it to another EBS instance using Hierarchical selection set feature which cascades filter criteria to all related setups in the selection set template.
  • In a roll-out scenario, iSetup can be used to replicate the setups tied to an existing Operating Unit to a new Operating Unit.
  • iSetup can be used to migrate incremental setups selectively across instances using filters on setup attributes.